The need for efficient solid waste management practices has become more pressing, especially in developing nations largely experiencing a population boom in urban areas. Currently, however, it is only developed nations that have embraced resource efficient practices and technologies to produce energy, heat, fuels and compost from solid waste. This paper reviews such global trends and best practices as a benchmark against current practices within the context of Botswana. It also reviews the opportunities for Waste to Energy (WtE) in this developing nation by taking a solid waste inventory. A literature survey revealed that Botswana is still operating in the previous policy direction of keeping the society clean to avoid the hygienic effects of waste. The collection and disposal of waste is partly decentralized with several private players. There is little recycling within the country; most private companies collect recyclables and send them to South Africa. Anaerobic digestion and incineration are the only WtE opportunities that had been previously identified with no major commitment on implementation. There are alternative WtE technologies, therefore the economic and technical requirements should be weighed against the corresponding capacity of the nation.