Rhizosphere-induced changes of Pinus densiflora (S. and Z.) grown at elevated atmospheric temperature and carbon dioxide are presented based on experiments carried out in a two-compartment rhizobag system filled with forest soil in an environmentally controlled walk-in chamber with four treatment combinations: control (25°C, 500 μmol mol-1 CO2), T2 (30°C, 500 μmol mol-1 CO2), T3 (25°C, 800 μmol mol-1 CO2), and T4 (30°C, 800 μmol mol-1 CO2). Elevated temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentration of sugars and dissolved organic carbon in soil solution, especially at the later period of plant growth. Soil solution pH from the rhizosphere became less acidic than the bulk soil regardless of treatment, while the electrical conductivity of soil solution from the rhizosphere was increased by elevated carbon dioxide treatment. Biolog EcoPlate™ data showed that the rhizosphere had higher average well color development, Shannon-Weaver index, and richness of carbon utilization compared with bulk soil, indicating that microbial activity in the rhizosphere was higher and more diverse than in bulk soil. Subsequent principal component analysis indicated separation of soil microbial community functional structures in the rhizosphere by treatment. The principal components extracted were correlated to plant-induced changes of substrate quality and quantity in the rhizosphere as plants' response to varying temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide. © 2012 The Japanese Forest Society and Springer.