Soil Heavy Metal Concentration Patterns at Two Speed Zones along the Gaborone-Tlokweng Border Post Highway, Southeast Botswana

MOHAMMED SHAIKH, NKOBI MOLEELE, Georges-Ivo Ekosse, Otlogetswe Totolo, Julius Atlhopheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Since 1988 Botswana has been experiencing an unprecedented increase in vehicular traffic which is suspected to be having contamination effects on soils along heavily used roads in the country. This study aimed at understanding the contamination trends of heavy metals on soils due to vehicular emissions. The soil physico-chemistry (bulk density, particle size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity), mineralogy (using x-ray diffraction techniques) and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) concentrations were determined for soil samples obtained along the roadside at 2m, 4m, 6m and 100 m of the Gaborone - Tlokweng Emigration/Immigration Boarder Post Road, which is one of the busiest in the country. Bulk density of soil samples were from 1.19 to 1.4; and sand, loamy sand and sandy loam textural classes constituted the soil samples. The soil pH was from 5.09 to 8.57; the EC ranged from 6.27 μS cm-1to 20.3 27 μS cm-1 and the CEC values were from 10.2 meq100g-1 to 27.2 meq100g-1. Clay minerals were identified in the samples as well as feldspar and quartz. The concentration levels for Pb were from 0 mgkg-1 to 71 mgkg-1; Zn were from 5.23 mgkg-1 to 51.26 mgkg-1 ; Cu were from 0.3 mgkg-1 to 18.1 mgkg-1 and Cd 0 mgkg-1 to 2.4 mgkg-1 . The interplay of soil physico-chemistry and mineralogy on heavy metals concentrations is discussed. Although levels of heavy metals concentrations fell below normal ranges, the values obtained were generally higher than those from some developed and developing countries. @JASEM
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Applied Science and Environmental Management
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 24 2009

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heavy metal
road
soil
soil chemistry
cation exchange capacity
bulk density
loamy sand
emigration
sandy loam
immigration
diffraction
electrical conductivity
clay mineral
border
speed
feldspar
mineralogy
developing world
particle size
quartz

Cite this

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title = "Soil Heavy Metal Concentration Patterns at Two Speed Zones along the Gaborone-Tlokweng Border Post Highway, Southeast Botswana",
abstract = "Since 1988 Botswana has been experiencing an unprecedented increase in vehicular traffic which is suspected to be having contamination effects on soils along heavily used roads in the country. This study aimed at understanding the contamination trends of heavy metals on soils due to vehicular emissions. The soil physico-chemistry (bulk density, particle size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity), mineralogy (using x-ray diffraction techniques) and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) concentrations were determined for soil samples obtained along the roadside at 2m, 4m, 6m and 100 m of the Gaborone - Tlokweng Emigration/Immigration Boarder Post Road, which is one of the busiest in the country. Bulk density of soil samples were from 1.19 to 1.4; and sand, loamy sand and sandy loam textural classes constituted the soil samples. The soil pH was from 5.09 to 8.57; the EC ranged from 6.27 μS cm-1to 20.3 27 μS cm-1 and the CEC values were from 10.2 meq100g-1 to 27.2 meq100g-1. Clay minerals were identified in the samples as well as feldspar and quartz. The concentration levels for Pb were from 0 mgkg-1 to 71 mgkg-1; Zn were from 5.23 mgkg-1 to 51.26 mgkg-1 ; Cu were from 0.3 mgkg-1 to 18.1 mgkg-1 and Cd 0 mgkg-1 to 2.4 mgkg-1 . The interplay of soil physico-chemistry and mineralogy on heavy metals concentrations is discussed. Although levels of heavy metals concentrations fell below normal ranges, the values obtained were generally higher than those from some developed and developing countries. @JASEM",
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Soil Heavy Metal Concentration Patterns at Two Speed Zones along the Gaborone-Tlokweng Border Post Highway, Southeast Botswana. / SHAIKH, MOHAMMED; MOLEELE, NKOBI; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo; Totolo, Otlogetswe; Atlhopheng, Julius.

In: Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management , Vol. 10, 24.06.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Soil Heavy Metal Concentration Patterns at Two Speed Zones along the Gaborone-Tlokweng Border Post Highway, Southeast Botswana

AU - SHAIKH, MOHAMMED

AU - MOLEELE, NKOBI

AU - Ekosse, Georges-Ivo

AU - Totolo, Otlogetswe

AU - Atlhopheng, Julius

PY - 2009/6/24

Y1 - 2009/6/24

N2 - Since 1988 Botswana has been experiencing an unprecedented increase in vehicular traffic which is suspected to be having contamination effects on soils along heavily used roads in the country. This study aimed at understanding the contamination trends of heavy metals on soils due to vehicular emissions. The soil physico-chemistry (bulk density, particle size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity), mineralogy (using x-ray diffraction techniques) and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) concentrations were determined for soil samples obtained along the roadside at 2m, 4m, 6m and 100 m of the Gaborone - Tlokweng Emigration/Immigration Boarder Post Road, which is one of the busiest in the country. Bulk density of soil samples were from 1.19 to 1.4; and sand, loamy sand and sandy loam textural classes constituted the soil samples. The soil pH was from 5.09 to 8.57; the EC ranged from 6.27 μS cm-1to 20.3 27 μS cm-1 and the CEC values were from 10.2 meq100g-1 to 27.2 meq100g-1. Clay minerals were identified in the samples as well as feldspar and quartz. The concentration levels for Pb were from 0 mgkg-1 to 71 mgkg-1; Zn were from 5.23 mgkg-1 to 51.26 mgkg-1 ; Cu were from 0.3 mgkg-1 to 18.1 mgkg-1 and Cd 0 mgkg-1 to 2.4 mgkg-1 . The interplay of soil physico-chemistry and mineralogy on heavy metals concentrations is discussed. Although levels of heavy metals concentrations fell below normal ranges, the values obtained were generally higher than those from some developed and developing countries. @JASEM

AB - Since 1988 Botswana has been experiencing an unprecedented increase in vehicular traffic which is suspected to be having contamination effects on soils along heavily used roads in the country. This study aimed at understanding the contamination trends of heavy metals on soils due to vehicular emissions. The soil physico-chemistry (bulk density, particle size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity), mineralogy (using x-ray diffraction techniques) and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) concentrations were determined for soil samples obtained along the roadside at 2m, 4m, 6m and 100 m of the Gaborone - Tlokweng Emigration/Immigration Boarder Post Road, which is one of the busiest in the country. Bulk density of soil samples were from 1.19 to 1.4; and sand, loamy sand and sandy loam textural classes constituted the soil samples. The soil pH was from 5.09 to 8.57; the EC ranged from 6.27 μS cm-1to 20.3 27 μS cm-1 and the CEC values were from 10.2 meq100g-1 to 27.2 meq100g-1. Clay minerals were identified in the samples as well as feldspar and quartz. The concentration levels for Pb were from 0 mgkg-1 to 71 mgkg-1; Zn were from 5.23 mgkg-1 to 51.26 mgkg-1 ; Cu were from 0.3 mgkg-1 to 18.1 mgkg-1 and Cd 0 mgkg-1 to 2.4 mgkg-1 . The interplay of soil physico-chemistry and mineralogy on heavy metals concentrations is discussed. Although levels of heavy metals concentrations fell below normal ranges, the values obtained were generally higher than those from some developed and developing countries. @JASEM

U2 - 10.4314/jasem.v10i2.43693

DO - 10.4314/jasem.v10i2.43693

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management

JF - Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management

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