In this study, the relationship between soil chemical and microbial properties and ginseng root growth was determined. Rhizosphere soil and ginseng root samples were collected from three different ginseng farms within Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea. Our results showed that available phosphorus, magnesium and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in soils have significant correlation with the overall growth of ginseng roots. Soil chemical properties such as pH, percent total C and N, C:N ratio, available P, exchangeable Ca, K and Na were also found to have correlation with soil microbial properties such as PC 1, PC 2, PC 3, AWCD and richness of metabolized carbon based on Biolog EcoPlateTM. However, direct correlation between soil microbial properties and ginseng root growth was not observed. Establishment of the relationship between soil chemical and microbial properties with ginseng root growth is important to fully understand the factors affecting nutrient availability in ginseng cultivated soils which could help identify cultural strategies that would enhance the root growth and quality of P. ginseng. © 2015 Friends Science Publishers.