Selection of screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions to facilitate post-flush urine and faeces separation within single household sanitation systems

E. Mercer, P. Cruddas, L. Williams, A. Kolios, A. Parker, S. Tyrrel, E. Cartmell, M. Pidou, E.J. McAdam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To ensure adequate access to sanitation in developing economies, off-grid single household sanitation has been proposed which obviates the need for significant infrastructure capital investment. Whilst treatment at this scale is most efficient when coupled to source separation (i.e. urine from faeces), existing source separation solutions have proved difficult to implement in this context. In this study, screw extrusion is therefore investigated to provide 'post-flush' source separation. Both screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions were evaluated. Preferential screw characteristics included tapering of the shaft and progressive pitch reduction, linked to a small extrusion aperture, the combination of which enhanced solids extrusion efficiency and promoted higher solids concentration in the extruded fraction. Whilst maximum extrusion efficiency was observed at high rotational speeds (over 400 rpm), this also promoted free water transport. Operating below 300 rpm instead introduced selectivity for transport of faecal sludge over urine, enabling phase separation. Constraining the volumetric ratio of urine to faeces also enhanced the extrusion rate of faecal sludge by increasing feed viscosity sufficient to overcome backpressure imposed by unmasticated food particles that would otherwise restrict separation. Importantly, this study demonstrates the feasibility of screw extrusion for 'post flush' separation of urine and faeces which constitutes a significant advancement towards realising sanitation at a single household scale. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)953-964
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Science: Water Research and Technology
Volume2
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Sanitation
extrusion
sanitation
feces
urine
Extrusion
boundary condition
Boundary conditions
Source separation
sludge
Phase separation
shaft
household
viscosity
infrastructure
Viscosity
food
Water

Cite this

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title = "Selection of screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions to facilitate post-flush urine and faeces separation within single household sanitation systems",
abstract = "To ensure adequate access to sanitation in developing economies, off-grid single household sanitation has been proposed which obviates the need for significant infrastructure capital investment. Whilst treatment at this scale is most efficient when coupled to source separation (i.e. urine from faeces), existing source separation solutions have proved difficult to implement in this context. In this study, screw extrusion is therefore investigated to provide 'post-flush' source separation. Both screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions were evaluated. Preferential screw characteristics included tapering of the shaft and progressive pitch reduction, linked to a small extrusion aperture, the combination of which enhanced solids extrusion efficiency and promoted higher solids concentration in the extruded fraction. Whilst maximum extrusion efficiency was observed at high rotational speeds (over 400 rpm), this also promoted free water transport. Operating below 300 rpm instead introduced selectivity for transport of faecal sludge over urine, enabling phase separation. Constraining the volumetric ratio of urine to faeces also enhanced the extrusion rate of faecal sludge by increasing feed viscosity sufficient to overcome backpressure imposed by unmasticated food particles that would otherwise restrict separation. Importantly, this study demonstrates the feasibility of screw extrusion for 'post flush' separation of urine and faeces which constitutes a significant advancement towards realising sanitation at a single household scale. {\circledC} 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.",
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Selection of screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions to facilitate post-flush urine and faeces separation within single household sanitation systems. / Mercer, E.; Cruddas, P.; Williams, L.; Kolios, A.; Parker, A.; Tyrrel, S.; Cartmell, E.; Pidou, M.; McAdam, E.J.

In: Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2016, p. 953-964.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Selection of screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions to facilitate post-flush urine and faeces separation within single household sanitation systems

AU - Mercer, E.

AU - Cruddas, P.

AU - Williams, L.

AU - Kolios, A.

AU - Parker, A.

AU - Tyrrel, S.

AU - Cartmell, E.

AU - Pidou, M.

AU - McAdam, E.J.

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