Risk assessment indices such as risk assessment code (RAC), potential ecological risk index (PERI), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and enrichment factor (EF) provide a good measure of environmental risk posed by Pb accumulated in shooting range soils as opposed to total Pb concentration. For this reason, the S/P Pistol shooting range, even though accumulated lower concentration of Pb (685±218 mg/kg), exhibited ‘very high risk’ to the environment with RAC value of 77 exceeding the 51 set guideline value for ‘very high risk’ with a significant margin compared to MAT R2 (20888±5419 mg/kg) at RAC value of 48 and highest total Pb concentration. This implies that mobility and bioavailability of Pb at S/P Pistol shooting range will be higher posing a greater risk to biota even though contamination from Pb is low. Best shooting range management practices and low cost remedial actions such as phytoremediation and chemical immobilization should be carried out as soon as possible to minimize the bioavailability and mobility of Pb in the studied shooting ranges.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Health and Safety
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis