While Plutella xylostella (L.) is a cosmopolitan pest of brassica crops, little is known about small-scale farmers? knowledge, perceptions and practices (KPPs) in response to the pest?s increasing status. Using a non-probability sampling method, face to face interviews were conducted based on a structured questionnaire. Botswana brassica farmers were interviewed to understand current KPPs. Plutella xylostella emerged as a major challenge in brassica production with highest prevalence in the hot-dry spring season. Farmers relied on 41 different hazardous synthetic pesticides that were applied injudiciously with prophylactic sprays, regardless of acute and chronic health effects or environmental risk potential. Most farmers neither knew (62.7%) nor had first-hand experience (93.1%) on Integrated Pest Management or biological control methods (79.4%), including the use of biopesticides (70.6%). There were also knowledge gaps of P. xylostella natural enemies and other non-chemical pest management alternatives, fundamental components of IPM. Our findings underline human and environmental welfare concerns and sustainability challenges in pesticide use practices in small-scale brassica production systems and the urgent need for more benign alternative pest management options.