Steady two-dimensional natural convection in fluid filled cavities is numerically investigated. The channel is heated from below and cooled from the top with insulated side walls and the inclination angle is varied. The field equations for a Newtonian Boussinesq fluid are solved numerically for three cavity height based Rayleigh numbers, Ra = 10 4, 10 5 and 10 6, and several aspect ratios. The calculations are in excellent agreement with previously published benchmark results. The effect of the inclination of the cavity to the horizontal with the angle varying from 0° to 180° and the effect of the startup conditions on the flow pattern, temperature distribution and the heat transfer rates have been investigated. Flow admits different configurations at different angles as the angle of inclination is increased depending on the initial conditions. Regardless of the initial conditions Nusselt number Nu exhibits discontinuities triggered by gradual transition from multiple cell to a single cell configuration. The critical angle of inclination at which the discontinuity occurs is strongly influenced by the assumed startup field. The hysteresis effect previously reported is not always present when the calculations are reversed from 90° to 0°. A comprehensive study of the flow structure, the Nu variation with varying angle of inclination, the effect of the initial conditions and the hysteresis effect are presented.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Heat and Mass Transfer/Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 1 2012|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes