Juxtaposition of India and Madagascar

A Perspective

M. Yoshida, H. M. Rajesh, M. Santosh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Proterozoic terrains in South India and Madagascar provide important clues in understanding the Gondwanaland tectonics, especially the assembly of this mega-continent during the Pan-African period. The Archaean terrains in both Madagascar and India are characterized by N-S trending greenstone belts occurring within gneissose granitic rocks in the northern part. Extensive development of K-rich granitic rocks of ca. 2.5 Ga is also characteristic in both areas. Such a broad age zonation of younger Dharwar (ca 2.6-3.0 Ga) in the north and the older Sargur (ca 3.0-3.4 Ga) in the south as in South India remains to be identified in future studies from Madagascar. Tine occurrence of greenschist facies rocks in the northeastern part and higher grade rocks in most of other parts in the north-central terrain of Madagascar is comparable with the general tendency of increasing metamorphic grade from northwestern to southern areas ranging from greenschist to granulite facies in South India. The Proterozoic crystalline rocks in both continents show pronounced lithological similarity with the wide occurrence of graphite-bearing khondalite in association with charnockitic rocks. While the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary is well defined in southern India by the Palghat-Cauvery or the KKPT shear zones as recently identified, this boundary is ill-defined in Madagascar due to extensive Pan-African overprinting, as well as the development of the Proterozoic cover sequence, the Itremo Group. There is also a possible general correlation between the Mesoproterozoic cover sequences in Madagascar and India, such as between the Itremo Group of west-central Madagascar and the Kaladgi and Cuddapah sequences of South India. The Pan-African granulite facies metamorphism of ca. 0.5 Ga extensively developed in both India and Madagascar is generally comparable in intensity and extent. P-T conditions and P-T-t paths also appear comparable, with the general range of ca. 700-1000°C and 6-9 kb, and near-isothermal decompressional paths. A-type granite plutons and alkaline rocks including anorthosites and mafic plutonic rocks of ca. 500-800 Ma develop in both terrains, provide strong basis for the correlation of both terrains, and define a Pan-African igneous province within East Gondwanaland. Major shear zones in both continents are expected to play a critical role in the correlation, albeit are still poorly constrained. Detailed elucidation of the tectonic history of the shear zones, and the timing of various events along the shear zones would provide important constraints on the correlation of the two continental fragments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-462
Number of pages14
JournalGondwana Research
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1999

Fingerprint

shear zone
Proterozoic
rock
granulite facies
Archean
khondalite
P-T-t path
igneous province
tectonics
alkaline rock
overprinting
greenschist
anorthosite
plutonic rock
P-T conditions
crystalline rock
greenstone belt
greenschist facies
mafic rock
graphite

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geology

Cite this

Yoshida, M. ; Rajesh, H. M. ; Santosh, M. / Juxtaposition of India and Madagascar : A Perspective. In: Gondwana Research. 1999 ; Vol. 2, No. 3. pp. 449-462.
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Juxtaposition of India and Madagascar : A Perspective. / Yoshida, M.; Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

In: Gondwana Research, Vol. 2, No. 3, 01.01.1999, p. 449-462.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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AU - Santosh, M.

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N2 - Proterozoic terrains in South India and Madagascar provide important clues in understanding the Gondwanaland tectonics, especially the assembly of this mega-continent during the Pan-African period. The Archaean terrains in both Madagascar and India are characterized by N-S trending greenstone belts occurring within gneissose granitic rocks in the northern part. Extensive development of K-rich granitic rocks of ca. 2.5 Ga is also characteristic in both areas. Such a broad age zonation of younger Dharwar (ca 2.6-3.0 Ga) in the north and the older Sargur (ca 3.0-3.4 Ga) in the south as in South India remains to be identified in future studies from Madagascar. Tine occurrence of greenschist facies rocks in the northeastern part and higher grade rocks in most of other parts in the north-central terrain of Madagascar is comparable with the general tendency of increasing metamorphic grade from northwestern to southern areas ranging from greenschist to granulite facies in South India. The Proterozoic crystalline rocks in both continents show pronounced lithological similarity with the wide occurrence of graphite-bearing khondalite in association with charnockitic rocks. While the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary is well defined in southern India by the Palghat-Cauvery or the KKPT shear zones as recently identified, this boundary is ill-defined in Madagascar due to extensive Pan-African overprinting, as well as the development of the Proterozoic cover sequence, the Itremo Group. There is also a possible general correlation between the Mesoproterozoic cover sequences in Madagascar and India, such as between the Itremo Group of west-central Madagascar and the Kaladgi and Cuddapah sequences of South India. The Pan-African granulite facies metamorphism of ca. 0.5 Ga extensively developed in both India and Madagascar is generally comparable in intensity and extent. P-T conditions and P-T-t paths also appear comparable, with the general range of ca. 700-1000°C and 6-9 kb, and near-isothermal decompressional paths. A-type granite plutons and alkaline rocks including anorthosites and mafic plutonic rocks of ca. 500-800 Ma develop in both terrains, provide strong basis for the correlation of both terrains, and define a Pan-African igneous province within East Gondwanaland. Major shear zones in both continents are expected to play a critical role in the correlation, albeit are still poorly constrained. Detailed elucidation of the tectonic history of the shear zones, and the timing of various events along the shear zones would provide important constraints on the correlation of the two continental fragments.

AB - Proterozoic terrains in South India and Madagascar provide important clues in understanding the Gondwanaland tectonics, especially the assembly of this mega-continent during the Pan-African period. The Archaean terrains in both Madagascar and India are characterized by N-S trending greenstone belts occurring within gneissose granitic rocks in the northern part. Extensive development of K-rich granitic rocks of ca. 2.5 Ga is also characteristic in both areas. Such a broad age zonation of younger Dharwar (ca 2.6-3.0 Ga) in the north and the older Sargur (ca 3.0-3.4 Ga) in the south as in South India remains to be identified in future studies from Madagascar. Tine occurrence of greenschist facies rocks in the northeastern part and higher grade rocks in most of other parts in the north-central terrain of Madagascar is comparable with the general tendency of increasing metamorphic grade from northwestern to southern areas ranging from greenschist to granulite facies in South India. The Proterozoic crystalline rocks in both continents show pronounced lithological similarity with the wide occurrence of graphite-bearing khondalite in association with charnockitic rocks. While the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary is well defined in southern India by the Palghat-Cauvery or the KKPT shear zones as recently identified, this boundary is ill-defined in Madagascar due to extensive Pan-African overprinting, as well as the development of the Proterozoic cover sequence, the Itremo Group. There is also a possible general correlation between the Mesoproterozoic cover sequences in Madagascar and India, such as between the Itremo Group of west-central Madagascar and the Kaladgi and Cuddapah sequences of South India. The Pan-African granulite facies metamorphism of ca. 0.5 Ga extensively developed in both India and Madagascar is generally comparable in intensity and extent. P-T conditions and P-T-t paths also appear comparable, with the general range of ca. 700-1000°C and 6-9 kb, and near-isothermal decompressional paths. A-type granite plutons and alkaline rocks including anorthosites and mafic plutonic rocks of ca. 500-800 Ma develop in both terrains, provide strong basis for the correlation of both terrains, and define a Pan-African igneous province within East Gondwanaland. Major shear zones in both continents are expected to play a critical role in the correlation, albeit are still poorly constrained. Detailed elucidation of the tectonic history of the shear zones, and the timing of various events along the shear zones would provide important constraints on the correlation of the two continental fragments.

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