HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the October-November 2003 solar proton events

M. López-Puertas, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, T. Von Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, G. Mengistu Tsidu, H. Fischer, C. H. Jackman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The large solar storm in October-November 2003 produced enormous amounts of high-energy protons which reached the Earth and penetrated into the middle atmosphere in the polar regions. At this time, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board the Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) was observing the atmosphere in the 6-68 km altitude range. MIPAS observed significant enhancements of the NOy components HNO 3, N2O5, and ClONO2 in the northern polar stratosphere after the intense solar proton events. Two distinct HNO 3 enhancements were observed. An instantaneous increase of 1-2 ppbv was observed immediately after the SPEs and is attributed to gas-phase chemistry: NO2 + OH + M → HNO3 + M, accelerated by SPE-produced excess OH. A very large second increase of 1-5 ppbv started around 10 November and lasted until the end of December. It is attributed to NO x (NO + NO2) produced in the mesosphere during the major SPEs in late October/early November and then transported downward during November and December, partially converted to N2O5 in the upper stratosphere, which finally formed HNO3 via ion cluster reactions. N2O5 was observed to increase by 0.1-0.4 ppbv 1-3 days after the major SPEs and reached down to 30 km altitude. A second, more pronounced N2O5 enhancement of up to 1.2 ppbv at 40 km appeared about 12-13 days after the major SPEs. With a delay of 1-2 days after the major SPEs ClONO2 increased by up to 0.4 ppbv (40%) at 32 km altitude. NOy enhancements in the Southern Hemisphere were generally less pronounced.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA09S44
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Volume110
Issue numberA9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2005

Fingerprint

solar protons
Michelson interferometers
Upper atmosphere
MIPAS
protons
Protons
atmospheric sounding
stratosphere
augmentation
Polar Regions
solar storms
Gases
Earth (planet)
middle atmosphere
Satellites
Ions
mesosphere
polar region
Southern Hemisphere
chemistry

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

López-Puertas, M., Funke, B., Gil-López, S., Von Clarmann, T., Stiller, G. P., Höpfner, M., ... Jackman, C. H. (2005). HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the October-November 2003 solar proton events. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 110(A9), [A09S44]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JA011051
López-Puertas, M. ; Funke, B. ; Gil-López, S. ; Von Clarmann, T. ; Stiller, G. P. ; Höpfner, M. ; Kellmann, S. ; Mengistu Tsidu, G. ; Fischer, H. ; Jackman, C. H. / HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the October-November 2003 solar proton events. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2005 ; Vol. 110, No. A9.
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abstract = "The large solar storm in October-November 2003 produced enormous amounts of high-energy protons which reached the Earth and penetrated into the middle atmosphere in the polar regions. At this time, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board the Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) was observing the atmosphere in the 6-68 km altitude range. MIPAS observed significant enhancements of the NOy components HNO 3, N2O5, and ClONO2 in the northern polar stratosphere after the intense solar proton events. Two distinct HNO 3 enhancements were observed. An instantaneous increase of 1-2 ppbv was observed immediately after the SPEs and is attributed to gas-phase chemistry: NO2 + OH + M → HNO3 + M, accelerated by SPE-produced excess OH. A very large second increase of 1-5 ppbv started around 10 November and lasted until the end of December. It is attributed to NO x (NO + NO2) produced in the mesosphere during the major SPEs in late October/early November and then transported downward during November and December, partially converted to N2O5 in the upper stratosphere, which finally formed HNO3 via ion cluster reactions. N2O5 was observed to increase by 0.1-0.4 ppbv 1-3 days after the major SPEs and reached down to 30 km altitude. A second, more pronounced N2O5 enhancement of up to 1.2 ppbv at 40 km appeared about 12-13 days after the major SPEs. With a delay of 1-2 days after the major SPEs ClONO2 increased by up to 0.4 ppbv (40{\%}) at 32 km altitude. NOy enhancements in the Southern Hemisphere were generally less pronounced.",
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López-Puertas, M, Funke, B, Gil-López, S, Von Clarmann, T, Stiller, GP, Höpfner, M, Kellmann, S, Mengistu Tsidu, G, Fischer, H & Jackman, CH 2005, 'HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the October-November 2003 solar proton events', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol. 110, no. A9, A09S44. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JA011051

HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the October-November 2003 solar proton events. / López-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Gil-López, S.; Von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Höpfner, M.; Kellmann, S.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Fischer, H.; Jackman, C. H.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 110, No. A9, A09S44, 01.01.2005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the October-November 2003 solar proton events

AU - López-Puertas, M.

AU - Funke, B.

AU - Gil-López, S.

AU - Von Clarmann, T.

AU - Stiller, G. P.

AU - Höpfner, M.

AU - Kellmann, S.

AU - Mengistu Tsidu, G.

AU - Fischer, H.

AU - Jackman, C. H.

PY - 2005/1/1

Y1 - 2005/1/1

N2 - The large solar storm in October-November 2003 produced enormous amounts of high-energy protons which reached the Earth and penetrated into the middle atmosphere in the polar regions. At this time, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board the Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) was observing the atmosphere in the 6-68 km altitude range. MIPAS observed significant enhancements of the NOy components HNO 3, N2O5, and ClONO2 in the northern polar stratosphere after the intense solar proton events. Two distinct HNO 3 enhancements were observed. An instantaneous increase of 1-2 ppbv was observed immediately after the SPEs and is attributed to gas-phase chemistry: NO2 + OH + M → HNO3 + M, accelerated by SPE-produced excess OH. A very large second increase of 1-5 ppbv started around 10 November and lasted until the end of December. It is attributed to NO x (NO + NO2) produced in the mesosphere during the major SPEs in late October/early November and then transported downward during November and December, partially converted to N2O5 in the upper stratosphere, which finally formed HNO3 via ion cluster reactions. N2O5 was observed to increase by 0.1-0.4 ppbv 1-3 days after the major SPEs and reached down to 30 km altitude. A second, more pronounced N2O5 enhancement of up to 1.2 ppbv at 40 km appeared about 12-13 days after the major SPEs. With a delay of 1-2 days after the major SPEs ClONO2 increased by up to 0.4 ppbv (40%) at 32 km altitude. NOy enhancements in the Southern Hemisphere were generally less pronounced.

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López-Puertas M, Funke B, Gil-López S, Von Clarmann T, Stiller GP, Höpfner M et al. HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the October-November 2003 solar proton events. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2005 Jan 1;110(A9). A09S44. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JA011051