Effect of annealing on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanowires by hydrothermal synthesis for transparent electrode fabrication

E. Muchuweni, T. S. Sathiaraj, H. Nyakotyo

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16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

ZnO nanowires were grown by hydrothermal synthesis and the effect of annealing on their physical properties was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, spectrophotometry and Hall effect measurements. The nanowires adopted the c-axis [0 0 1] growth orientation of the underlying gallium and aluminium co-doped ZnO seed layer and their vertical alignment improved with annealing temperature up to 250 °C, above which it became random at 350 °C. This was attributed to the improvement in crystallinity up to 250 °C and its deterioration at 350 °C. Energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed that the Zn:O atomic ratios for all samples were nearly stoichiometric. Average optical transmittances around 50–70% were observed in the visible region. The optimum electrical properties for transparent electrode fabrication were achieved at 250 °C, where the carrier concentration was maximum (5.5 × 1020 cm−3) and electrical resistivity was minimum (1.1 × 10−2 Ω cm).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-73
Number of pages6
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology
Volume227
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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