Bulk copper electrodeposition on gold imaged by in situ STM: Morphology and influence of tip potential

J. E.T. Andersen, G. Bech-Nielsen, P. Møller, J. C. Reeve

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined for correlation with features of the current-voltage diagram. Copper growth is by nucleation and formation of 3D islands. During the initial stages of bulk copper growth the potentials were fixed at selected values and a balance observed between formation of polycrystalline copper nuclei and of copper crystals. After the first cycle of copper deposition and dissolution the morphology of the polycrystalline gold surface had apparently changed into a recrystallized phase of a copper-gold alloy. At a given stage of the cycle the potential of the electrode was found to depend linearly on the tip potential. In a wide range of tip potentials the onset of copper deposition and end of dissolution showed a potential separation of 59 ± 5 mV indicating a single electron process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-170
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Electrochemistry
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1996

Fingerprint

Electrodeposition
Gold
Copper
Dissolution
Gold Alloys
Copper deposits
Gold alloys
Copper alloys
Nucleation
Crystals
Electrodes
Electrons
Electric potential

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

@article{07d83ac7815641f69672ccde09cf2e2e,
title = "Bulk copper electrodeposition on gold imaged by in situ STM: Morphology and influence of tip potential",
abstract = "Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined for correlation with features of the current-voltage diagram. Copper growth is by nucleation and formation of 3D islands. During the initial stages of bulk copper growth the potentials were fixed at selected values and a balance observed between formation of polycrystalline copper nuclei and of copper crystals. After the first cycle of copper deposition and dissolution the morphology of the polycrystalline gold surface had apparently changed into a recrystallized phase of a copper-gold alloy. At a given stage of the cycle the potential of the electrode was found to depend linearly on the tip potential. In a wide range of tip potentials the onset of copper deposition and end of dissolution showed a potential separation of 59 ± 5 mV indicating a single electron process.",
author = "Andersen, {J. E.T.} and G. Bech-Nielsen and P. M{\o}ller and Reeve, {J. C.}",
year = "1996",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/BF00364066",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "161--170",
journal = "Journal of Applied Electrochemistry",
issn = "0021-891X",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
number = "2",

}

Bulk copper electrodeposition on gold imaged by in situ STM : Morphology and influence of tip potential. / Andersen, J. E.T.; Bech-Nielsen, G.; Møller, P.; Reeve, J. C.

In: Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 26, No. 2, 01.01.1996, p. 161-170.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bulk copper electrodeposition on gold imaged by in situ STM

T2 - Morphology and influence of tip potential

AU - Andersen, J. E.T.

AU - Bech-Nielsen, G.

AU - Møller, P.

AU - Reeve, J. C.

PY - 1996/1/1

Y1 - 1996/1/1

N2 - Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined for correlation with features of the current-voltage diagram. Copper growth is by nucleation and formation of 3D islands. During the initial stages of bulk copper growth the potentials were fixed at selected values and a balance observed between formation of polycrystalline copper nuclei and of copper crystals. After the first cycle of copper deposition and dissolution the morphology of the polycrystalline gold surface had apparently changed into a recrystallized phase of a copper-gold alloy. At a given stage of the cycle the potential of the electrode was found to depend linearly on the tip potential. In a wide range of tip potentials the onset of copper deposition and end of dissolution showed a potential separation of 59 ± 5 mV indicating a single electron process.

AB - Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined for correlation with features of the current-voltage diagram. Copper growth is by nucleation and formation of 3D islands. During the initial stages of bulk copper growth the potentials were fixed at selected values and a balance observed between formation of polycrystalline copper nuclei and of copper crystals. After the first cycle of copper deposition and dissolution the morphology of the polycrystalline gold surface had apparently changed into a recrystallized phase of a copper-gold alloy. At a given stage of the cycle the potential of the electrode was found to depend linearly on the tip potential. In a wide range of tip potentials the onset of copper deposition and end of dissolution showed a potential separation of 59 ± 5 mV indicating a single electron process.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030081194&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030081194&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF00364066

DO - 10.1007/BF00364066

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0030081194

VL - 26

SP - 161

EP - 170

JO - Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

JF - Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

SN - 0021-891X

IS - 2

ER -