Assessing the Effects of Estrogen on the Dynamics of Breast Cancer

Chipo Mufudza, Walter Sorofa, Edward Chiyaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Worldwide, breast cancer has become the second most common cancer in women. The disease has currently been named the most deadly cancer in women but little is known on what causes the disease. We present the effects of estrogen as a risk factor on the dynamics of breast cancer. We develop a deterministic mathematical model showing general dynamics of breast cancer with immune response. This is a four-population model that includes tumor cells, host cells, immune cells, and estrogen. The effects of estrogen are then incorporated in the model. The results show that the presence of extra estrogen increases the risk of developing breast cancer.
Original languageEnglish
Article number473572
Number of pages14
JournalComputational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Publication statusPublished - Dec 19 2012


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