An enhanced HNO3 second maximum in the Antarctic midwinter upper stratosphere 2003

Gabriele P. Stiller, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Thomas von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, A. Linden, R. Ruhnke, H. Fischer, M. López-Puertas, Bernd Funke, S. Gil-López

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    Abstract

    Vertical profiles of stratospheric HNO3 were retrieved from limb emission spectra recorded by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aboard the Envisat research satellite during the Antarctic winter 2003. A high second maximum of HNO3 was found around 34 km altitude with abundances up to 14 ppbv HNO3 during July. Similar high abundances have not been reported in the literature for previous winters, but for the subsequent Arctic winter 2003/2004, after severe perturbations due to solar proton events. The second HNO3 maximum in the Antarctic stratosphere started to develop in early June 2003, reached peak values during July 2003, and decreased to about 7 ppbv at the end of August while being continuously transported downward before finally forming a single HNO3 layer over all latitudes in the lower stratosphere together with the out-of-vortex primary HNO3 maximum. The HNO3 decrease in August 2003 was correlated with photochemical buildup of other NOy species as ClONO2 and NOx. From the time scales observed, it can be ruled out that the 2003 long-term HNO3 enhancements were caused by local gas phase reactions immediately after the solar proton event on 29 May 2003. Instead, HNO3 was produced by ion cluster chemistry reactions and/or heterogeneous reactions on sulfate aerosols via N2O5 from high amounts of NOx being continuously transported downward from the lower thermosphere during May to August.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberD20303
    Pages (from-to)1-14
    Number of pages14
    JournalJournal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres
    Volume110
    Issue number20
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 27 2005

    Fingerprint

    Upper atmosphere
    stratosphere
    winter
    solar protons
    protons
    Protons
    reaction chemistry
    MIPAS
    atmospheric sounding
    Michelson interferometers
    gas phase reaction
    thermosphere
    aerosols
    limbs
    Aerosols
    vertical profile
    Sulfates
    vortex
    limb
    Arctic region

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Geophysics
    • Oceanography
    • Forestry
    • Ecology
    • Aquatic Science
    • Water Science and Technology
    • Soil Science
    • Geochemistry and Petrology
    • Earth-Surface Processes
    • Atmospheric Science
    • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
    • Space and Planetary Science
    • Palaeontology

    Cite this

    Stiller, G. P., Tsidu, G. M., von Clarmann, T., Glatthor, N., Höpfner, M., Kellmann, S., ... Gil-López, S. (2005). An enhanced HNO3 second maximum in the Antarctic midwinter upper stratosphere 2003. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 110(20), 1-14. [D20303]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006011
    Stiller, Gabriele P. ; Tsidu, Gizaw Mengistu ; von Clarmann, Thomas ; Glatthor, N. ; Höpfner, M. ; Kellmann, S. ; Linden, A. ; Ruhnke, R. ; Fischer, H. ; López-Puertas, M. ; Funke, Bernd ; Gil-López, S. / An enhanced HNO3 second maximum in the Antarctic midwinter upper stratosphere 2003. In: Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres. 2005 ; Vol. 110, No. 20. pp. 1-14.
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    abstract = "Vertical profiles of stratospheric HNO3 were retrieved from limb emission spectra recorded by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aboard the Envisat research satellite during the Antarctic winter 2003. A high second maximum of HNO3 was found around 34 km altitude with abundances up to 14 ppbv HNO3 during July. Similar high abundances have not been reported in the literature for previous winters, but for the subsequent Arctic winter 2003/2004, after severe perturbations due to solar proton events. The second HNO3 maximum in the Antarctic stratosphere started to develop in early June 2003, reached peak values during July 2003, and decreased to about 7 ppbv at the end of August while being continuously transported downward before finally forming a single HNO3 layer over all latitudes in the lower stratosphere together with the out-of-vortex primary HNO3 maximum. The HNO3 decrease in August 2003 was correlated with photochemical buildup of other NOy species as ClONO2 and NOx. From the time scales observed, it can be ruled out that the 2003 long-term HNO3 enhancements were caused by local gas phase reactions immediately after the solar proton event on 29 May 2003. Instead, HNO3 was produced by ion cluster chemistry reactions and/or heterogeneous reactions on sulfate aerosols via N2O5 from high amounts of NOx being continuously transported downward from the lower thermosphere during May to August.",
    author = "Stiller, {Gabriele P.} and Tsidu, {Gizaw Mengistu} and {von Clarmann}, Thomas and N. Glatthor and M. H{\"o}pfner and S. Kellmann and A. Linden and R. Ruhnke and H. Fischer and M. L{\'o}pez-Puertas and Bernd Funke and S. Gil-L{\'o}pez",
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    Stiller, GP, Tsidu, GM, von Clarmann, T, Glatthor, N, Höpfner, M, Kellmann, S, Linden, A, Ruhnke, R, Fischer, H, López-Puertas, M, Funke, B & Gil-López, S 2005, 'An enhanced HNO3 second maximum in the Antarctic midwinter upper stratosphere 2003', Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 110, no. 20, D20303, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006011

    An enhanced HNO3 second maximum in the Antarctic midwinter upper stratosphere 2003. / Stiller, Gabriele P.; Tsidu, Gizaw Mengistu; von Clarmann, Thomas; Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.; Ruhnke, R.; Fischer, H.; López-Puertas, M.; Funke, Bernd; Gil-López, S.

    In: Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, Vol. 110, No. 20, D20303, 27.10.2005, p. 1-14.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Stiller, Gabriele P.

    AU - Tsidu, Gizaw Mengistu

    AU - von Clarmann, Thomas

    AU - Glatthor, N.

    AU - Höpfner, M.

    AU - Kellmann, S.

    AU - Linden, A.

    AU - Ruhnke, R.

    AU - Fischer, H.

    AU - López-Puertas, M.

    AU - Funke, Bernd

    AU - Gil-López, S.

    PY - 2005/10/27

    Y1 - 2005/10/27

    N2 - Vertical profiles of stratospheric HNO3 were retrieved from limb emission spectra recorded by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aboard the Envisat research satellite during the Antarctic winter 2003. A high second maximum of HNO3 was found around 34 km altitude with abundances up to 14 ppbv HNO3 during July. Similar high abundances have not been reported in the literature for previous winters, but for the subsequent Arctic winter 2003/2004, after severe perturbations due to solar proton events. The second HNO3 maximum in the Antarctic stratosphere started to develop in early June 2003, reached peak values during July 2003, and decreased to about 7 ppbv at the end of August while being continuously transported downward before finally forming a single HNO3 layer over all latitudes in the lower stratosphere together with the out-of-vortex primary HNO3 maximum. The HNO3 decrease in August 2003 was correlated with photochemical buildup of other NOy species as ClONO2 and NOx. From the time scales observed, it can be ruled out that the 2003 long-term HNO3 enhancements were caused by local gas phase reactions immediately after the solar proton event on 29 May 2003. Instead, HNO3 was produced by ion cluster chemistry reactions and/or heterogeneous reactions on sulfate aerosols via N2O5 from high amounts of NOx being continuously transported downward from the lower thermosphere during May to August.

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