Recently, Raman spectroscopy become a popular and potential analytical technique for the analysis of pharmaceuticals as a result of its advancement. The innovation of laser technology, Fourier Transform-Raman spectrometers with charge coupled device (CCD) detectors, ease of sample preparation and handling, mitigation of sub-sampling problems using different geometric laser irradiance patterns and invention of different optical components of Raman spectrometers are contributors of the advancement of Raman spectroscopy. Transmission Raman Spectroscopy is a useful tool in pharmaceutical analysis to address the problems related with sub-sampling in conventional Raman back scattering. More importantly, the development of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been a prominent advancement for Raman spectroscopy to be applied for pharmaceuticals analysis as it avoids the inherent insensitivity and fluorescence problems. As the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) contain aromatic or conjugated domains with strong Raman scattering activity, Raman spectroscopy is an attractive alternative conventional analytical method for pharmaceuticals. Coupling of Raman spectroscopy with separation techniques is also another advancement applied to reduce or avoid possible spectral interferences. Therefore, in this review, transmission Raman spectroscopy, SERS, and SERS coupled with various separation techniques for pharmaceutical analysis are presented.
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