The demand for faster internet connections to access wireless multimedia applications, Aeronautical Communication Networks (ACNs) and internet services has resulted into rise of developing broadband wireless technologies in recent years. The demand for higher data rates was the backbone for developing wireless communication technologies such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), Long Term Evolution (LTE) and High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA). The big challenge with wireless communications lies with providing Quality of Service (QoS) under various environmental challenges and maximizing resource utilization at the same time. In wireless communication, the support for QoS is difficult due to the unpredictable nature of wireless channels. Opportunistic Scheduling plays a big role towards meeting QoS requirements and managing resources in aeronautical communication networks. Various opportunistic schedulers focus on increasing the system capacity of a wireless communication network, while some aim on improving the system’s fairness and throughput. With such interest in opportunistic scheduling, the paper focuses on reviewing recently proposed opportunistic scheduling algorithms, the objectives they were designed for, and their shortcomings. An effective opportunistic scheduling algorithm with hierarchical modulation technique is presented in this paper. The algorithm focuses on the ability to allocate resources between two users with different channel conditions; that is a user with good channel conditions and a user with bad channel conditions, to maximize the system’s throughput and maintain fairness.