Under certain geological conditions, low induction number electromagnetic (LIN-EM) instruments are known to produce negative apparent conductivity (σa) responses. This is particularly the case when the shallow subsurface is characterised by highly conductive bodies, however little attention has been given to this issue in the research literature. To analyse negative σa anomalies and their causative structures, we make use of a 3D integral equation forward modelling technique based on a 3D weighting function. We present 3D numerical modelling results over a volcanic tuff body intruded by several dacite dikes, in Sugisawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan. Apparent conductivity data were acquired using a Geonics EM-34–3 system in the horizontal magnetic dipole (HMD) and vertical magnetic dipole (VMD) operating modes. Our 3D model resolved the horizontal and vertical extent of the dacite dikes and also delineated a high conductive zone between the volcanic tuff and the intrusive dacite dikes. This zone is the causative structure for negative σa responses in the VMD data, and is interpreted to be an alteration zone. Interestingly, the negative σa response was absent when the instrument alignment azimuth was changed, implying an anisotropic effect on the EM signature in the study area. The true conductivity model achieved by 3D forward modelling is shown to compare favourably with the DC resistivity data acquired in the same area.
|Number of pages||15|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|